How to make a thin-layer chromatography

Probably, many of you wonder what kind of test is performed to determine if a marijuana strain has significant rates of the main cannabinoids, as well as the method used to know the precentatge (more or less accurate, as we will see) of each cannabinoid contained in the tested sample. In this post we will explain step by step how to do a thin-layer chromatography (TLC), an analisis that will show us the approximate percentages of the main cannabinoids detected in each sample. To do this, we used eight different samples of the marijuana strain Fruity Jack / Jack el Frutero from Philosopher Seeds, with the simple purpose, in this case, to know which of the analyzed phenotypes have high amounts of the cannabinoid CBD.

The medical use of marijuana is constantly gaining ground in the past few years, as well as the interest from breeders and consumers to know the exact amounts of cannabinoids present in their favourite cannabis strains. That’s why expressions such as “thin-layer chromatography” or “gas chromatography” are becoming more and more familiar for the cannabis community. To learn more about these analysis systems, we met with a good friend and collaborator who explained us a system based on the thin-layer chromatography with which we get reliable results quickly and safely for our health.

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Diaries and growing reports of several cannabis strains. Usually, beginner growers have lots of questions: Which strain to grow? In which substrate? Which fertilizer should I use? Is this lighting system suitable for me? In this category we want to show you different growing setups, step-by-step instructions to properly take care of your plants and several farming techniques like SOG and SCROG. You will also see many pictures to help you obtain high quality marijuana harvests.

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lthough marijuana is generally consumed by inhalation (vaporization or burning) it is also possible to consume it in food, both for recreational and therapeutic use. The main advantages of taking it via ingestion are the protection of the respiratory system as opposed to burning it, and the duration of the effect, which will last considerably longer (several hours), significantly reducing the frequency of use. To cook marijuana, we must first extract their phytocannabinoids, which are the active ingredients of the plant. As they are not soluble in water, we use concentrated vegetable fats (olive oil, coconut butter, …), animal (butter, cream, whole milk, …), or food alcohol (eg Bacardie 151), for a cannabis tincture. We hope you enjoy cooking!

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How To Germinate Medical Marijuana Seeds

Germinating Medical Marijuana Seeds

There are many methods that can be used to germinate medical marijuana seeds, but this one has been proven to work consistently.

Fill a small glass (1.5 ounce size) 3/4 with water and add a half a cap full of hydrogen peroxide.  This helps open up the shells and improve germ rates. Place your seeds in the glass and tap the seeds so they go under the water a couple times. This ensures that the seedsare moist on the entire shell. Leave the seeds in the glass for 24 to 48 hours and then give them a tap and see if they sink to the bottom. If they sink to the bottom, it means that the seeds are ready for the next step. If they are still floating, give them a tap and let them soak until they too drop to the bottom.

In the next step, you will need a re-sealable plastic bag or a plastic container that can be sealed to put the seeds in once they are ready.  Take a 1/4 piece of paper towel and soak it. Squeeze the excess water off and place the seeds in a line in the center. Simply fold the paper towel over a few times and then place that in the bag or container you will be using. Now you want to make sure they get some heat. This can be accomplishedseveral ways.  You can place the bag or container on a cable box, TV or anything that gives off above room temperature heat but not hot temperatures.  Leave it alone for 2-4 days.  You are looking for something that can keep the seeds warm and in a perfect environment to germinate.

You need to check the seeds daily to make sure that the paper towel remains wet but not saturated. The seeds need moisture but cannot be saturated with water or mold can arise. After 24 hours some of the seeds will start growing their taproots. After a seed has grown around 1/4″ to 1/2”, you can then place them where you plan to grow the plant.

This proven method will allow you to keep a higher ratio of your medical marijuana seeds to germinate.  . This method is far better than simply putting a seed in the soil and hoping for the best. This is used by medical marijuana growers above most others because of its proven success.

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Ballasts and growing cannabis plants indoors

hen we are about to set upe an indoor marijuana growing space, there are many factors to take into account if we want our plants to enjoy proper ventilation, lighting, etc. If we grow with discharge lamps (HPS or MH) we are going to need a ballast to correctly operate our lighting system.

The main doubt that can arise is whether to choose a magnetic or an electronic ballast. Electronic ballasts are a step forward in lighting systems for growing cannabis, replacing the traditional power transformer of the magnetic ballasts with electronic components.

Although the price of most electronic ballasts is a little higher than that of magnetic ones, they have a number of advantages in comparison with these:

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Nutrient imbalance in marijuana plants?

n this post we will focus on the macro and micro-nutrients necessary for the development of cannabis plants. These elements are available in the nutrients, so the chosen type of fertiliser and its correct use will lead us to a crop without deficiencies or excesses, thanks to a properly planned and balanced feeding.

There are different factors to take into account, so we’ll try to explain them in a simple way so that all growers can dispel all the possible doubts which may arise relating to the nutrition of their cannabis plants.

 

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How to hide marijuana plants

Nowadays, it is getting more and more difficult to grow marijuana outdoors . It’s not about pests, diseases or adverse climates… the number one enemy of marijuana growers are thieves.

 

Here you will learn a system to camouflage your marijuana plants -a rather curious technique as well as safer than the usual methods.

With the increase of information and number of people growing marijuana, it is hard to find a place where the plant can go unnoticed. 

It will be easier if you have a small garden with fruit trees, olive trees and ornamental trees. If this is not the case, you can also try the camouflage method, but it requires a little more work because you will have to apply this technique to the trees you find in the woods, always in private land – we must own it..

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Growing marijuana step by step

When you start growing you should take into account the final size that you want for your plants. If you want the largest possible plants, the best is to start growing at mid or late March. You will get plants between 250 and 350 cm in height, depending on the strain. If you do not want them to grow that much, then you should plant them a little later.

Germinate the seeds and once the small roots can be seen, transplant them to a 9×9 cm (0.25 l) pot with moistened substrate. During the next few days water them only with tap water (pH adjusted at 6) when you see the soil dry. Place the pots under the sunlight and wait for the small seedlings to start growing, which may take 5-10 days. Throughout this process the plants should be exposed to full sun, otherwise you will get very tall and weak plants.

After approximately three weeks, your plants should be about 20 cm tall and have about three pairs of true leafs. At this point, remove the plant from the pot if it has a good rootball. You can then transplant your plants to an 11 litre pot. Prepare the soil mix containing 80% of the recommended soil + 20% of vermicompost + 1/2 kg of bat guano and 250 grams of Nutrihemp per 100 litres of soil. Mix it thoroughly and proceed to transplant.

During the first two weeks after transplanting, water your plants whenever the soil is dry, always using tap water. You only need to add the required acid to adjust the pH, lowering it at pH=6.

By the fourth week after transplanting (eighth weeks after having started growing the plants, early June) you should start sexing the plants, as they reach full sexual maturity at this moment. This should be done if you have used regular seeds, ignore this step otherwise.

 

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A single outdoor crop per year?

Normally, when growing outdoors we only take advantage of the best period of the year, late Spring and Summer. However, in many areas is it possible to perform several outdoor crops per year, especially during Spring and Autumm. To do this, we only need a small greenhouse to stabilize the temperature of the plants. For this type of crops we can use either autoflowering seeds orcuttings from motherplants; the only disadvantage of using cuttings is that, once we place them outdoors from our indoor growing tent, they practically don’t grow and start flowering immediately regardless their size.

For this reason, we should grow our cuttings indoors a few weeks before placing them in our outdoor greenhouse. In this way, we can control the final height of our plants keeping in mind that, while our plants will start flowering as soon as we place them outdoors, they will have the typical stretch during the pre-flowering stage just like in any other type of cultivation. Protecting our plants from the cold, frost, wind and other bad weather conditions with a greenhouse is also a good idea, since our plants will have a more abundant flowering.

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Tips to Maximize your LED Grow Lights

Grow Tips for LED Grow Lights

As lighting technology continues to advance, cultivators are starting to witness the benefits of replacing HPS grow lights with LED grow lights. Beyond a reduction in energy consumption and utility costs, cultivators are actively looking to do more than just replace HPS with LED, they’re looking towards LED to advance product quality, increase yield and drive efficiencies in their supply chain. There are several tips for maximizing LED grow lights.

A very common mistake made when switching from HID to LED lights is overwatering. HID lighting generates heat and contains high levels of infrared light (IR) which helps dry out the soil and plants. LED lighting doesn’t generate the same amount of heat and no IR light, so you need to be careful that you don’t overwater your plants.

Growers using HIDs often rely on the heat coming from traditional grow lights. After switching to LED grow lights growers often experience a drop in temperature because LEDs don’t generate the same amount of heat. This means that growers might have to raise the temperature where the plants are being grown for their crop to thrive. LEDs energy efficiency will offset any increased cost for heating.

Installing your LEDs at the precise height can enrich yield and quality. You want to make sure that your LEDs can maintain a wide, uniform light distribution concentrated deep into the canopy.If you mount your LEDs too high, you may increase your coverage area, but you will also be reducing the light’s intensity. If you mount your LEDs too low, the intense proximity of the light could stress your plants and cause numerous issues. Your best option is to start with the LED manufacturer’s mounting recommendation, understand your DLI (Daily Light Integral)and calculate and adjust from there.

You can spotlight one section with oneLED lamp, and repeat the isolation for each cluster of your crop. However, it is best to calculate and useseverallamps in your facility. This allows the beams to overlap and maximize light distribution across the entire canopy. It is recommended that you ask a professional lighting company for a light plan before you begin.

Light cycles set the rhythm for your plant’s life. Indoor growers can manipulate these light cycles by increasing or decreasing the hours of light and darkness, stimulating a plant’s photoperiod whenever it is wanted. For greenhouse cultivators it is also possible to manipulate light and dark cycles by the use of blackout curtains and additional lighting. Automated blackout curtains helps growers block out unwanted sunlight and ensure needed dark periods during long summer days and additional lighting helps fill the gap of light needed during dark winter days. The average light cycle during the vegetative stage is 18 hours of light per day with 6 hours of darkness for flowers. A 12/12 cycle will trigger flowering for most flower crops because the increased amount of uninterrupted darkness tells the plant that fall is approaching.

Just as you can manipulate the photoperiod with LEDs, you can also manipulate exposure to blue, white, red and far-red spectrums at different stages in the plant’s growth cycle. While the flowering cycle can be influenced by multiple factors, a custom light recipe that taps into the far-red spectrum has been shown to reduce the flowering cycle of plants, which expedites the time until harvest.A light recipe also allows you to set the light intensity throughout the day. For example, in a greenhouse, cultivators are able to calculate the DLI(Daily Light Integral) for their crop and increase or decrease the output depending on the need for supplemental lighting throughout the day.

With the latest innovations in LED lights, day and night can be manipulated for optimal growth and yield of your plants while conserving energy costs.

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